Proteoglycans are highly glycosylated proteins formed by the covalent binding between different glycosaminoglycans (GAG) and a protein core (protein), which form a complex with hyaluronic acid. Its cross-linking with other matrix proteins, such as the collagen network, results in the formation of supramolecular structures and functions to increase tissue stiffness. In addition, they contribute to the hydration and resistance of tissues and, due to their polyanionic properties, act as a biological reservoir for cytokines and growth factors.
The proteoglycans are found naturally in the dermis and epidermis of the skin, they are structural elements of the cells, which remain attached to the membrane of these and the extracellular matrix. After a certain age, the action of our proteoglycans decreases and, therefore, the use of cosmetics with proteoglycans is very useful after 30 years.
Among the various benefits they bring to the skin include:
1. Great capacity to fix water, preserving the hydration in the space that is between the cells and leaving it accessible for adequate hydration. This achieves an increase in the volume, elasticity and firmness of the skin.
2. Its structure helps to give smoothness to the skin, as it intervenes in the formation of gels that regulate the entry and exit of elements in the cell.
3. They associate with each other and with other molecules such as, for example, collagen or hyaluronic acid. This helps maintain a good skin appearance (this prevents the formation of cutaneous wrinkles)
4. Increase in cell proliferation
In the long term, there is a reparative, antiaging, anti-wrinkles and firming effect
Proteoglycans are susceptible to degradation due to the action of different compounds, thus decreasing their beneficial properties for the skin. In addition, due to its structure and nature, its penetration into the skin is very limited and, therefore, hardly reach the cellular epidermis which is the target layer where they must act.
The encapsulation of proteoglycans in liposomes solves the aforementioned problems thanks to the protection afforded by the encapsulation to the encapsulated compound and due to the great capacity of vehiculization of liposomes. In the specific case of proteoglycans, studies carried out in INdermal with proteoglycans encapsulated in our high-efficiency liposomes have shown up to 3-fold higher release of proteoglycans in the cellular epidermis compared to free proteoglycans. This entails a considerable increase in the efficiency of the final product.
As a result of this research, INdermal has developed Lipo-Proteoglycan, a product which contains proteoglycans of natural origin in high-efficiency liposomes.